Karate has existed in many forms over the centuries. Traditional Karate can trace its roots back to ancient China. Sport Karate is a modern version of Karate that is far more widespread. Traditional Karate focuses on Kata, or forms, whereas Sport Karate emphasizes Kumite or competition. While Traditional and Sport Karate has a shared heritage, many significant differences tell them apart.
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Karate originated in Okinawa in around 1,300 AD. Chinese martial artists moved into the area and began teaching locals various techniques. In the following century, the Japanese would ban weapons in the Okinawa region, making martial arts all the more popular. Rather than having one holistic style, multiple martial arts styles were being developed by various masters.
As time went on, these styles and techniques would be refined and further influenced by Chinese techniques. Karate would soon become embedded into Okinawan society, eventually being taught in elementary schools at the turn of the 20th century.
Japan would then annex the region, and the martial art would soon spread throughout Japan. While popular, Karate needed to have its name changed as the Japanese had begun an invasion of China. So Karate went from “The way of the Chinese fist” to “The way of the open fist”. Over the next few decades, Karate would become widespread across Japan and embed itself within the cultural fabric.
Following the Second World War, Karate became more widespread. This was largely due to the United States soldiers stationed in Japan taking the techniques and training around the world. Following the cultural and political revolution in Japan, Karate adopted aspects more commonly associated with Sport Karate. In 2016 Karate was recognized as a sport and ready to be adopted into the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games.
Differences between Sport Karate and Traditional Karate
As mentioned earlier, a large difference between Sport and Traditional Karate is that Sport is focused on the competition, whereas Traditional is focused on forms. While this is true, there is a greater, more fundamental difference between the two disciplines.
Traditional Karate is a lot more holistic. It aims to teach its practitioners balance and a philosophy of life. Sport Karate has a greater emphasis on fitness and engaging in competition, with less of the philosophical and spiritual aspects of Traditional Karate.
There is also a difference between the underlying principle of the two disciplines. The main focus of Traditional Karate is the “Final Blow.” This is essentially any technique that renders an opponent unable to resist. Essentially any technique that can end a fight by either incapacitating While both forms of Karate practice the Kata and have some form of Kumite, Traditional Karate places greater emphasis on the former.
At the same time, Sport Karate focuses on the latter. The emphasis on Kata can be seen as a connection to Karate’s origins, namely Chinese martial arts. The focus on competition is what many critics of Sport Karate point to when they want to complain.
This is because, by its nature, Karate is more about self-development than it is about competition. Most Sport Karate practitioners would argue that they are able to develop themselves through competition.an opponent or knocking them unconscious.
Sport Karate, on the other hand, has more of an emphasis on scoring points. Each attack landed can score from one up to three points.
The points are divided into five categories. Yuko (A) is worth one point and is a straight punch to the body. Yuko (B) is worth one point and is a straight punch to the head. Waziri is worth two points and is a kick to the body. Ippon (A) is worth three points and is a kick to the head. Ippon (B) is worth three points and is awarded to any legal strike landed after a takedown or sweep.
While combat is still the main focus of Sport Karate, there is less emphasis on the concept of a “Finishing Blow”.
The Reality of Traditional Karate
Due to Karate’s many evolutions over the decades and centuries, what is known as Traditional Karate does not really exist. Okinawan Karate is fundamentally different from how Karate is practiced today. Even if we go back to the early 1940s, most Karate dojos would utterly dismiss the practices of modern “Traditional” Karate schools.
While current Traditional Karate still maintains Karate’s holistic nature, many of the Kata, traditions, and techniques have been lost or altered. In fact, most original Karate schools would banish students from sparring. One might say that Traditional Karate no longer exists and that the differentiation should be around Kata and Kumite Karate.
While Different Both Have Value
Although there are different guiding principles between the two schools of thought around Karate. One could argue that to be a complete Karateka, one should study both schools of thought. With Sport Karate, one can train the physical fitness and competitive spirit one might need as a Karateka.
In Traditional Karate, one can achieve balance and develop a philosophical connection with their body. Through Kumite, you can experience the thrills of competition and motivate you to become a better practitioner. Through Kata you can develop mindfulness and your technique. Both offer something of value, and neither should be shunned.
In fact, the most critical thing you can do is to practice both schools of thought to become a fully developed Karateka.
The Future of Karate
Despite what Traditionalists say, the future of Karate likely lies in the hands of Sport Karate. Sport Karate is the most widely recognized form of martial art. It is the specific type of Karate that has Olympic recognition and a unified set of competition rules.
No one is quite sure if Traditional Karate even exists anymore. While it is tragic to lose history, it is important to remember that Sport Karate still carries the lineage of Traditional Karate, and it will never lose its origins. It should never be about Sport Karate vs. Traditional Karate. It should be about Sport Karate and Traditional Karate.